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What is an algorithm, anyway?
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What is an algorithm, anyway?

“The Algorithm” is impenetrable. It’s mysterious, it’s all-knowing, it’s omnipotent. Except that it’s not.

An algorithm is a simple concept that, today, has many complex manifestations. Algorithms’ central and opaque position at the heart of social networks like Facebook cause some to view algorithms in general with a sort of mystical reverence. Algorithms have become synonymous with something highly technical and difficult to understand, that is either an arbiter of objective truth, or, on the other end of the spectrum, something wholly untrustworthy.

But when people refer to “the algorithm” — whether Facebook’s or another tech company’s recommendation algorithm, or just “algorithms” in general — do they really know what it means? Judging by how widely the term is used and misused, most likely not. As Mashable embarks on our exploration of algorithms, we wanted to get something straight right off the bat: What is an algorithm, anyway?

Mashable spoke with Pedro Domingos, a computer science professor at the University of Washington who has also written a book about the ever-growing role algorithms play in our lives. Before you go being alternatively impressed by or distrusting of the next computer algorithm you encounter, get back to basics on the concept that’s powering our world.

How to bake a cake, find the sum of two plus two, or even run a country according to the U.S. Constitution are all examples of algorithms. Why? Because, according to Domingos, the definition of an algorithm is “a sequence of instructions.” That’s it!

Today, an algorithm usually refers to “a sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do.” A computer program is an algorithm, written in a computer programming language, that a computer can understand and execute.

Algorithms written for computers also have to be extremely precise, often using the instructions “if,” “then,” and “else.” For example, a self-driving car might run on an algorithm for navigating that says “IF the directions say turn left, THEN turn left.” See how specific you have to be to make a computer follow a seemingly simple set of instructions?

In the popular imagination, recommendation algorithms have come to dominate our idea of what an algorithm is. That is, when many people think about or refer to algorithms, they’re referencing something like what TV show Netflix thinks you might like, or which international travelers belong on the no-fly list. While these are extremely complicated algorithms, at their hearts, they’re still just a set of instructions a computer follows to complete a specified task.

“With computers, the algorithm can get vastly more complex,” Domingos said. “Addition is an algorithm that’s defined in a few lines of text. Computers can have algorithms that take millions of lines to define.”

As early as the Babylonian era, humans were writing algorithms to help them do the mathematical equations that allowed them to manage their agricultural society.

“There were algorithms before computers, because you don’t need a computer to execute an algorithm, the algorithm can be executed by a person,” Domingos said.

Algorithms using computers first rose to prominence in the mid-20th century, when the military began writing formulas for, say, determining where to aim a missile at a moving object. The concept then moved into business administration, with computers running formulas for administering payroll and such, and in science, for tracking the movements in the sky.

A turning point for modern algorithms came when Larry Page and Sergei Brin wrote the Google PageRank algorithm. Instead of just relying on information within a page to determine how relevant it was to a search term, the search engine algorithm incorporated a host of other signals that would help it surface the best results. Most notably, how many other links pointed to the article, and how reputable those articles were, based on how many links pointed to those pages, and so on. That was a powerful sign of relevance. And the rest is history.

While we might think of algorithms as mathematical equations, algorithms, according to Domingos, “can compute anything from anything, there might be no numbers involved at all.” One prominent and extremely complex algorithm is the algorithm that governs the Facebook News Feed. It’s an equation that Facebook uses to determine what pieces of content to show its users as they scroll; in other words, a set of instructions to decide what goes on the News Feed.

“There’s no end of things that Facebook could put on your News Feed but it has to choose.”

“There’s no end of things that Facebook could put on your News Feed but it has to choose,” Domingos said. “And it’s usually a combination of things like how much do you care about the people that produced directly or indirectly that post? How close are they to you in your social network, how relevant it is in its own terms because of the subject, and also how recent.”

Facebook, Google, Amazon, and other big tech companies all rely on algorithms to serve content and products to their customers. But there are also algorithms throughout your life that you might not be aware of.

For example, Domingos explained that an algorithm governs how your dishwasher knows when it’s time to transition from washing to drying, or how your car regulates fuel intake and knows when its tank is full while at the gas station, or how shadows appear in a digitally animated movie to perfectly replicate the sun in the real world.

“Clearly, every time you interact with the computer, or you’re on the internet, there’s algorithms involved,” Domingos said. “But these days algorithms are also involved in just about everything.”

As we learned, an algorithm typically has to be written in “excruciating detail” for a computer to understand what to do. However, that’s not the case when the people who write algorithms incorporate machine learning — a type of artificial intelligence — which leads to the most sophisticated algorithms.

“In traditional programming, a human being has to write down every little detail of what the other has to do, and that is very time consuming, very costly,” Domingos said. “Machine learning is the computer discovering its own algorithms instead of being told what to do.”

Put another way, machine learning is when a programmer feeds a program some raw data as a starting point, then submits the end point of what an organized, classified version of that data looks like, and leaves it up to the program to figure out how to get from point A to point B. Consider an onion: A human who knows how to cook can turn that onion from a pungent raw sphere into strips of caramelized goodness. In a traditional algorithm, a programmer would write every single step of the cooking instructions. But in an algorithm developed by artificial intelligence, given the end point as a goal, the program would figure out how to get from raw to caramelized itself. Hence, the machine learned.

These types of algorithms become even more powerful when a human being wouldn’t know how to get from point A to point B. For example, a human process like being able to recognize that a cat is a cat takes so much complicated brain power that it would be impossible to write out step by step. But by giving a program a bunch of images of a cat, and images that are not a cat, and showing the desired endpoint as categorizing a cat image as a cat, the computer can learn to execute that process itself.

“It’s the computer learning to program itself instead of having to be programmed by people,” Domingos said. “This, of course, is extraordinarily powerful when it works, because now you can, you know, create very powerful, very complex algorithms with very little human intervention.” It’s also very funny when it doesn’t work.

Thanks to the sheer amount of data algorithms process, it might seem like they’re all-knowing mystery boxes built to reveal secrets. However, remember that an algorithm just means a set of instructions. What’s more, humans create algorithms, which means they can be flawed.

“There’s also a lot of misconceptions about algorithms, partly because people don’t really see what’s going on inside the computer,” Domingos said. “A very common one is that people think that algorithms are somehow perfect.”

Domingos explained that programmers spend enormous amounts of time fixing mistakes in algorithms so that the lines of code produce the appropriate results. However, humans don’t always catch those mistakes. What’s more, an algorithm is based around the output a human wants to see, or what that human is optimizing for. Take a hiring algorithm, which ostensibly should find the best candidate for a job. If a human sets the instructions to look at qualifications that aren’t necessarily relevant to a job (say, university pedigree), just because the algorithm then says “candidate A is the best person,” doesn’t make it the truth.

Often, that’s because of bias. And problems with bias can get even worse with algorithms that utilize artificial intelligence.

“In traditional programming you have to worry about the biases of the programmer,” Domingos said. “In machine learning, mainly, you have to worry about the biases that come from the data.”

For example, a hiring algorithm powered by machine learning might use as its starting point a bunch of resumes of candidates, and as its output the resumes of people who were hired in the past. However, most tech companies are not racially diverse. So an automated algorithm that makes hiring recommendations could mirror that real world inequality.

Studies have shown that artificial intelligence can mirror the gender and race stereotypes of the humans that train them. In one study, an algorithm that produced word associations used the entirety of the English language on the web as its training data to learn associations between words. Thanks to the biases that exist in our world, the algorithm determined that female names were more associated with the arts, while male names were more associated with math and science. Studies like these show that algorithms are not inherently neutral, perfect, or malevolent: They simply do what the humans and data that train them say to do. In short, they’re just as flawed as we are.

Algorithms may be imperfect, but they are nonetheless transforming our world.

“All these things that we take for granted like the web and social media, and on and on, they wouldn’t exist without algorithms,” Domingos said.

“Algorithms are doing for mental work what the Industrial Revolution did for manual work.”

As these automated sets of instructions become more and more widespread — from your dishwasher to the government’s supercomputers — humans have the ability to exercise our knowledge more quickly and efficiently than ever before. Domingos views that as nothing short of revolutionary.

“Algorithms are doing for mental work what the Industrial Revolution did for manual work,” Domingos said. “Algorithms are the automation of intelligence. And if you think about that, this is a very powerful thing: to do something that used to take, you know, human thinking and labor to do, now can be done by an algorithm.”

Algorithms are here to stay. But how we design them — biased or equitable, helpful or harmful — and how much we unquestionably accept their presence, is up to us.


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Eid-Al-Fitris one of the major holidays of Islam. It comes at the end of the holy month of Ramadan and celebrates the end of the fasting. The holiday comes on the first day of the 10th month in the Islamic lunar calendar. (In 2020, that is May 24.)

Because the month of Ramadan is all about fasting, Eid-Al-Fitr is all about NOT fasting. During Ramadan, Muslims have not eaten while the Sun is in the sky. On Eid-Al-Fitr, they celebrate the end of Ramadan with a sweet snack and then get ready for a day of celebration.

On this day, Muslims are encouraged to dress in their best clothes and attend a special Eid prayer at their neighborhood mosque. Before the prayer begins, Muslims make an alms payment (the Zakat al Fitr) for the month of Ramadan, in the form of food or its cash equivalent. This food and/or money is then distributed to the poor. After the special religious service, the focus turns to gift-giving. Children are given many gifts. Women get gifts from their loved ones. Also on this day, people are encouraged to settle feuds or disputes, especially those between family members.

Eid Al-Fitr means “Feast of Fast-Breaking.” It is often celebrated during three days, with the first day marking the end of Ramadan.

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What is an algorithm, anyway?

“The Algorithm” is impenetrable. It’s mysterious, it’s all-knowing, it’s omnipotent. Except that it’s not.

An algorithm is a simple concept that, today, has many complex manifestations. Algorithms’ central and opaque position at the heart of social networks like Facebook cause some to view algorithms in general with a sort of mystical reverence. Algorithms have become synonymous with something highly technical and difficult to understand, that is either an arbiter of objective truth, or, on the other end of the spectrum, something wholly untrustworthy.

But when people refer to “the algorithm” — whether Facebook’s or another tech company’s recommendation algorithm, or just “algorithms” in general — do they really know what it means? Judging by how widely the term is used and misused, most likely not. As Mashable embarks on our exploration of algorithms, we wanted to get something straight right off the bat: What is an algorithm, anyway?

Mashable spoke with Pedro Domingos, a computer science professor at the University of Washington who has also written a book about the ever-growing role algorithms play in our lives. Before you go being alternatively impressed by or distrusting of the next computer algorithm you encounter, get back to basics on the concept that’s powering our world.

How to bake a cake, find the sum of two plus two, or even run a country according to the U.S. Constitution are all examples of algorithms. Why? Because, according to Domingos, the definition of an algorithm is “a sequence of instructions.” That’s it!

Today, an algorithm usually refers to “a sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do.” A computer program is an algorithm, written in a computer programming language, that a computer can understand and execute.

Algorithms written for computers also have to be extremely precise, often using the instructions “if,” “then,” and “else.” For example, a self-driving car might run on an algorithm for navigating that says “IF the directions say turn left, THEN turn left.” See how specific you have to be to make a computer follow a seemingly simple set of instructions?

In the popular imagination, recommendation algorithms have come to dominate our idea of what an algorithm is. That is, when many people think about or refer to algorithms, they’re referencing something like what TV show Netflix thinks you might like, or which international travelers belong on the no-fly list. While these are extremely complicated algorithms, at their hearts, they’re still just a set of instructions a computer follows to complete a specified task.

“With computers, the algorithm can get vastly more complex,” Domingos said. “Addition is an algorithm that’s defined in a few lines of text. Computers can have algorithms that take millions of lines to define.”

As early as the Babylonian era, humans were writing algorithms to help them do the mathematical equations that allowed them to manage their agricultural society.

“There were algorithms before computers, because you don’t need a computer to execute an algorithm, the algorithm can be executed by a person,” Domingos said.

Algorithms using computers first rose to prominence in the mid-20th century, when the military began writing formulas for, say, determining where to aim a missile at a moving object. The concept then moved into business administration, with computers running formulas for administering payroll and such, and in science, for tracking the movements in the sky.

A turning point for modern algorithms came when Larry Page and Sergei Brin wrote the Google PageRank algorithm. Instead of just relying on information within a page to determine how relevant it was to a search term, the search engine algorithm incorporated a host of other signals that would help it surface the best results. Most notably, how many other links pointed to the article, and how reputable those articles were, based on how many links pointed to those pages, and so on. That was a powerful sign of relevance. And the rest is history.

While we might think of algorithms as mathematical equations, algorithms, according to Domingos, “can compute anything from anything, there might be no numbers involved at all.” One prominent and extremely complex algorithm is the algorithm that governs the Facebook News Feed. It’s an equation that Facebook uses to determine what pieces of content to show its users as they scroll; in other words, a set of instructions to decide what goes on the News Feed.

“There’s no end of things that Facebook could put on your News Feed but it has to choose.”

“There’s no end of things that Facebook could put on your News Feed but it has to choose,” Domingos said. “And it’s usually a combination of things like how much do you care about the people that produced directly or indirectly that post? How close are they to you in your social network, how relevant it is in its own terms because of the subject, and also how recent.”

Facebook, Google, Amazon, and other big tech companies all rely on algorithms to serve content and products to their customers. But there are also algorithms throughout your life that you might not be aware of.

For example, Domingos explained that an algorithm governs how your dishwasher knows when it’s time to transition from washing to drying, or how your car regulates fuel intake and knows when its tank is full while at the gas station, or how shadows appear in a digitally animated movie to perfectly replicate the sun in the real world.

“Clearly, every time you interact with the computer, or you’re on the internet, there’s algorithms involved,” Domingos said. “But these days algorithms are also involved in just about everything.”

As we learned, an algorithm typically has to be written in “excruciating detail” for a computer to understand what to do. However, that’s not the case when the people who write algorithms incorporate machine learning — a type of artificial intelligence — which leads to the most sophisticated algorithms.

“In traditional programming, a human being has to write down every little detail of what the other has to do, and that is very time consuming, very costly,” Domingos said. “Machine learning is the computer discovering its own algorithms instead of being told what to do.”

Put another way, machine learning is when a programmer feeds a program some raw data as a starting point, then submits the end point of what an organized, classified version of that data looks like, and leaves it up to the program to figure out how to get from point A to point B. Consider an onion: A human who knows how to cook can turn that onion from a pungent raw sphere into strips of caramelized goodness. In a traditional algorithm, a programmer would write every single step of the cooking instructions. But in an algorithm developed by artificial intelligence, given the end point as a goal, the program would figure out how to get from raw to caramelized itself. Hence, the machine learned.

These types of algorithms become even more powerful when a human being wouldn’t know how to get from point A to point B. For example, a human process like being able to recognize that a cat is a cat takes so much complicated brain power that it would be impossible to write out step by step. But by giving a program a bunch of images of a cat, and images that are not a cat, and showing the desired endpoint as categorizing a cat image as a cat, the computer can learn to execute that process itself.

“It’s the computer learning to program itself instead of having to be programmed by people,” Domingos said. “This, of course, is extraordinarily powerful when it works, because now you can, you know, create very powerful, very complex algorithms with very little human intervention.” It’s also very funny when it doesn’t work.

Thanks to the sheer amount of data algorithms process, it might seem like they’re all-knowing mystery boxes built to reveal secrets. However, remember that an algorithm just means a set of instructions. What’s more, humans create algorithms, which means they can be flawed.

“There’s also a lot of misconceptions about algorithms, partly because people don’t really see what’s going on inside the computer,” Domingos said. “A very common one is that people think that algorithms are somehow perfect.”

Domingos explained that programmers spend enormous amounts of time fixing mistakes in algorithms so that the lines of code produce the appropriate results. However, humans don’t always catch those mistakes. What’s more, an algorithm is based around the output a human wants to see, or what that human is optimizing for. Take a hiring algorithm, which ostensibly should find the best candidate for a job. If a human sets the instructions to look at qualifications that aren’t necessarily relevant to a job (say, university pedigree), just because the algorithm then says “candidate A is the best person,” doesn’t make it the truth.

Often, that’s because of bias. And problems with bias can get even worse with algorithms that utilize artificial intelligence.

“In traditional programming you have to worry about the biases of the programmer,” Domingos said. “In machine learning, mainly, you have to worry about the biases that come from the data.”

For example, a hiring algorithm powered by machine learning might use as its starting point a bunch of resumes of candidates, and as its output the resumes of people who were hired in the past. However, most tech companies are not racially diverse. So an automated algorithm that makes hiring recommendations could mirror that real world inequality.

Studies have shown that artificial intelligence can mirror the gender and race stereotypes of the humans that train them. In one study, an algorithm that produced word associations used the entirety of the English language on the web as its training data to learn associations between words. Thanks to the biases that exist in our world, the algorithm determined that female names were more associated with the arts, while male names were more associated with math and science. Studies like these show that algorithms are not inherently neutral, perfect, or malevolent: They simply do what the humans and data that train them say to do. In short, they’re just as flawed as we are.

Algorithms may be imperfect, but they are nonetheless transforming our world.

“All these things that we take for granted like the web and social media, and on and on, they wouldn’t exist without algorithms,” Domingos said.

“Algorithms are doing for mental work what the Industrial Revolution did for manual work.”

As these automated sets of instructions become more and more widespread — from your dishwasher to the government’s supercomputers — humans have the ability to exercise our knowledge more quickly and efficiently than ever before. Domingos views that as nothing short of revolutionary.

“Algorithms are doing for mental work what the Industrial Revolution did for manual work,” Domingos said. “Algorithms are the automation of intelligence. And if you think about that, this is a very powerful thing: to do something that used to take, you know, human thinking and labor to do, now can be done by an algorithm.”

Algorithms are here to stay. But how we design them — biased or equitable, helpful or harmful — and how much we unquestionably accept their presence, is up to us.


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Eid-Al-Fitr

Eid-Al-Fitr

 

 

Eid-Al-Fitr

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Eid-Al-Fitris one of the major holidays of Islam. It comes at the end of the holy month of Ramadan and celebrates the end of the fasting. The holiday comes on the first day of the 10th month in the Islamic lunar calendar. (In 2020, that is May 24.)

Because the month of Ramadan is all about fasting, Eid-Al-Fitr is all about NOT fasting. During Ramadan, Muslims have not eaten while the Sun is in the sky. On Eid-Al-Fitr, they celebrate the end of Ramadan with a sweet snack and then get ready for a day of celebration.

On this day, Muslims are encouraged to dress in their best clothes and attend a special Eid prayer at their neighborhood mosque. Before the prayer begins, Muslims make an alms payment (the Zakat al Fitr) for the month of Ramadan, in the form of food or its cash equivalent. This food and/or money is then distributed to the poor. After the special religious service, the focus turns to gift-giving. Children are given many gifts. Women get gifts from their loved ones. Also on this day, people are encouraged to settle feuds or disputes, especially those between family members.

Eid Al-Fitr means “Feast of Fast-Breaking.” It is often celebrated during three days, with the first day marking the end of Ramadan.

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America’s Reckoning on Racism Spreads Beyond Policing

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The House Judiciary Committee heard testimony on police accountability as the fallout from protests spread across industries.

Published June 10, 2020Updated June 15, 2020

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Protesters Tear Down and Damage Columbus Statues Across the Country

Demonstrators pulled down statues of Christopher Columbus in St. Paul, Minn., and Richmond, Va., and decapitated another in Boston, targeting monuments seen as symbols of white supremacy.

[cheering] [cheering] [drums and chanting] “Na na na na, hey hey, goodbye …” “Let’s go!” [drums] “They knocked it down.” “Why?” “We don’t condone any vandalism here in the city of Boston. And that needs to stop. We are going to be taking the statue down this morning, putting into storage to assess the damage of the statue. And given the conversations that we’re certainly having right now in our city of Boston and throughout the country, we’re also going to take time to assess the historic meaning of the statue.”

Video player loadingDemonstrators pulled down statues of Christopher Columbus in St. Paul, Minn., and Richmond, Va., and decapitated another in Boston, targeting monuments seen as symbols of white supremacy.CreditCredit…Joseph Prezioso/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Protests over the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis have quickly given rise to a vast American reckoning with racism, as a backlash against entrenched inequality reverberates across society, from the upper echelons of corporations and media organizations to the pages of the dictionary.

The fallout has been swift and fierce.

By Wednesday, the chief executive of CrossFit had resigned after speaking belligerently about race and racism on a company call. Thousands of researchers across the country went on strike, forgoing research, classes, meetings and other work to instead spend the day calling for actions to protect the lives of black people. And Merriam-Webster said it would expand its dictionary definition of racism to address systemic bias.

The changes come as protesters across the country continue to cry out for racial justice and accountability with a visceral force.

In Richmond, Va., protesters ripped down a statue of the explorer and colonizer Christopher Columbus overnight and threw it into a lake. In Boston, a similar statue was beheaded. Across the country, at least 10 monuments to Confederates or other controversial historical figures have been removed, and people have challenged similar monuments in more than 20 cities.

The demand for consequences reflects a considerable shift in public opinion, as Congress races to address police accountability and racial bias in law enforcement during a pivotal election year. The House Judiciary Committee heard testimony on Wednesday from a brother of Mr. Floyd, who spoke out against the repeated police killings of black Americans and urged lawmakers to “make it stop.”

Almost no industry has been immune from the fallout.

ImageMarcia Howard, 46, addressing the crowd on Wednesday at the place where George Floyd was arrested in Minneapolis.Marcia Howard, 46, addressing the crowd on Wednesday at the place where George Floyd was arrested in Minneapolis.Credit…Victor J. Blue for The New York Times
  • In Minneapolis, the police chief, Medaria Arradondo, said he would no longer engage in contract negotiations with the police union, as officials across the country increasingly defy influential police and corrections groups.

  • As major sports grapple with how to respond to the protests — and how much freedom to allow athletes to speak out — NASCAR banned the Confederate battle flag from its races, many of them in the South. Last week, the National Football League commissioner, Roger Goodell, said the league had been wrong to discourage political protest by its players.

  • Facing anger from employees, Adidas made a series of concessions, including a pledge that 30 percent of the people it hired would be black or Latino, but critics remain upset that the company has not formally acknowledged discrimination or apologized.

  • After a University of Chicago economist, Harald Uhlig, criticized and belittled black protesters, a group of economists is demanding his ouster as editor of a top academic publication in the field, the Journal of Political Economy.

  • Authors and book publishing employees are speaking publicly about pay disparities in an overwhelmingly white industry under the hashtag #PublishingPaidMe.

  • Among newspapers, whose newsrooms are also disproportionately white, high-ranking editors at The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Philadelphia Inquirer have stepped down or been reassigned in recent days after staff complaints about editorial decisions touching on race and protests.

  • At The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, two prominent black journalists say that their bosses unfairly kept them from covering protests against racism and police violence, and many of their colleagues are expressing support for them. The top editor, Keith C. Burris, said the newspaper had only acted against journalists who had demonstrated bias.

  • The Carolina Panthers removed a statue of the football team’s former owner, Jerry Richardson, from outside its stadium in Charlotte, N.C., two years after the N.F.L. fined him for racist comments and sexual harassment. The team called it a matter of public safety, citing the possibility that someone could try to tear the statue down.

  • In Atlanta, two police officers were fired on Wednesday for their role in dragging two students from their car and shooting them with stun guns while they were stuck in traffic during a May 30 protest against police brutality, bringing to four the number of officers fired as a result of the incident.

History suggests that such intense focus on societal racism is unlikely to last, the Rev. Al Sharpton warned during a eulogy for Mr. Floyd this week. He promised to be back in Minneapolis when the trial for officers start, and to march on Washington “by the tens of thousands” on the anniversary of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech in August.

“We must commit to this family — all of these families, all of his children, grandchildren and all — that until these people pay for what they did, that we’re going to be there with them,” he said. “Because lives like George’s will not matter until somebody pays the cost for taking their lives.”

The police have abandoned a precinct station in the Capitol Hill neighborhood.Credit…Ruth Fremson/The New York Times

President Trump renewed his threat to take federal action against local protesters in a late-night tweet on Wednesday, telling government officials in Washington State that they needed to crack down on demonstrators in Seattle.

Mr. Trump said protesters were taunting government leaders, apparently referring to a group that has set up barricades to occupy territory in several blocks of Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood.

“Take back your city NOW,” Mr. Trump wrote in a tweet directed at Mayor Jenny Durkan and Gov. Jay Inslee. “If you don’t do it, I will. This is not a game.”

The president added, “Domestic Terrorists have taken over Seattle, run by Radical Left Democrats, of course. LAW & ORDER!”

Ms. Durkan responded with a tweet of her own: “Make us all safe. Go back to your bunker.”

Police officers and protesters had repeatedly clashed next to the Capitol Hill police station in the aftermath of the killing of George Floyd, whose death in Minneapolis police custody sparked nationwide protests. Police officials decided to abandon the station on Monday, boarding it up and allowing protesters to demonstrate in the area without a police presence.

At gatherings on Wednesday, protesters held discussions about their priorities, listening to speeches and poetry while children drew with chalk on the street. There was no violence or looting, and the city’s fire chief wandered around the area talking with protesters about their needs and a collaborative path forward.

Mr. Trump had previously discussed deploying active-duty troops to quell the protests in American cities, which experts said would require invoking the Insurrection Act of 1807. That led to blowback from former military leaders who warned that such action could cause the military to lose credibility with Americans.

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‘Hurt Seeing My Brother Plead for His Life,’ Philonise Floyd Tells House

Philonise Floyd fought back tears as he described to lawmakers the pain of watching his brother suffer while pinned under the knee of a police officer.

I just think about that video, over and over again. Felt like 8 hours and 46 minutes. Hurt seeing my brother plead for his life, watching an officer just put his knee on his neck. Everyday just looking at it, being like anywhere — that’s all people talk about. The rest of my life, that’s all I ever see — somebody looking at the video. Kids have to watch the video. His kids have to watch the video, it just hurts. It’s a lot of people with a lot of pain. My family, they just cry and cry every day. And just ask, “Why? Why?” He pleaded for his life. He said he couldn’t breathe. Nobody cared — nobody!

Video player loadingPhilonise Floyd fought back tears as he described to lawmakers the pain of watching his brother suffer while pinned under the knee of a police officer.CreditCredit…Erin Schaff/The New York Times

A day after George Floyd was laid to rest during an impassioned service calling for broad corrections to racial injustice, his brother Philonise Floyd testified on Wednesday before a House hearing on police accountability and racial bias in law enforcement, and offered lawmakers a wrenching plea for change.

“I’m here to ask you to make it stop,” Mr. Floyd told the House Judiciary Committee, describing the agony he felt as he watched the video of his older brother dying while pinned under the knee of a white police officer for 8 minutes and 46 seconds. The elder Mr. Floyd died on May 25 after being arrested over a complaint that he had bought cigarettes with a counterfeit $20 bill.

“I am asking you, is that what a black man’s life is worth? Twenty dollars?” Mr. Floyd asked members of Congress. “This is 2020. Enough is enough. The people marching in the streets are telling you enough is enough.”

Moved to tears as he recounted how his brother had continued to address the officers detaining him as “sir” as he lay dying, Mr. Floyd later broke down as he detailed the horror his family felt watching the video, saying it felt like “eight hours and 46 minutes.”

“Sitting here, coming to try to tell you all about how I want justice for my brother, I just think about that video over and over again,” Mr. Floyd said. “Every day just looking at it, being anywhere, that’s all people talk about. The rest of my life, that’s all I’ll ever see.”

Anybody “with a heart,” he continued, would know that how his brother was treated was wrong: “You don’t do that to a human being, you don’t even do that to an animal.”

After delivering his testimony, Mr. Floyd marched to what is now known as Black Lives Matter Plaza, the area near the White House where federal officers last week used chemical spray to clear demonstrators protesting his brother’s death.

“George Floyd matters,” Mr. Floyd shouted, raising his fist as protesters chanted “Raise ’em up! Raise ’em high!” He was flanked by his lawyer, Benjamin Crump, and Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, Democrat of Texas.

Mr. Floyd was the marquee voice among more than a half-dozen civil rights experts and activists at a hearing called to consider the most expansive federal intervention into law enforcement that lawmakers have proposed in recent memory, which was put forth by Democrats this week.

His testimony added to the mounting sense of urgency on Capitol Hill to overhaul law enforcement practices and address systemic racism in policing.

House Democrats have indicated that they intend to act quickly, with a vote on their legislation planned by the end of the month. Congressional Republicans, faced with a rapid shift in public opinion, are scrambling to coalesce around a legislative response.

A statue of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, had stood along Monument Avenue in Richmond, Va., since 1907.Credit…Julia Rendleman/Reuters

Protesters toppled a statue of Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War, in Richmond, Va., on Wednesday night, as demonstrators across the country continued to target symbols of white supremacy after the death of George Floyd.

The statue was among a number of prominent Confederate monuments that had stood on Monument Avenue in Richmond, which was once the capital of the Confederacy. Local news reports showed photographs of it lying on the street, with the police nearby before a tow truck carted it away.

It came down one week after Mayor Levar Stoney of Richmond said he would propose an ordinance to remove all four Confederate monuments the city controls along Monument Avenue. Mr. Stoney said he would introduce the bill on July 1, when a new state law goes into effect giving local governments the authority to remove the monuments on their own.

“Richmond is no longer the capital of the Confederacy — it is filled with diversity and love for all — and we need to demonstrate that,” Mr. Stoney said in a statement then.

The statue of Davis was unveiled on June 3, 1907, and depicted him giving the speech in which he resigned from the United States Senate, according to a commission appointed by Mr. Stoney.

“We stand in solidarity with black and brown communities that are tired of being murdered by an out-of-control, militarized and violent police force,” the Richmond Indigenous Society, which took part in the rally, said in a statement on Wednesday.

Gov. Tim Walz of Minnesota, in a jacket and light blue shirt, walked along University Ave. in St. Paul on Monday.Credit…Pool photo by Glen Stubbe

Gov. Tim Walz of Minnesota is summoning a special session of the State Legislature to respond to the dual tragedies of the killing of George Floyd and the coronavirus pandemic.

“This call to a special session is not a call just from me, it’s that primal scream you heard from people on the streets demanding justice, demanding it now, and demanding us step into this moment,” Mr. Walz said on Wednesday, saying police reform and economic aid should be lawmakers’ priorities.

A few hours later, one of the four officers charged in Mr. Floyd’s death, Thomas Lane, posted $750,000 bail and was released, according to a Hennepin County Sheriff’s Office spokesman. The other three remain in custody.

In the session, to begin on Friday, the governor said lawmakers should pass a package of bills that address a list of recommendations from the legislature’s People of Color and Indigenous Caucus. The package includes designating the state attorney general as the primary investigator of police killings; creating a criminal offense of “use of force by law enforcement that leads to severe injury or death”; making it easier to discipline officers; and requiring officers to intervene when their colleagues wrongfully hurt someone.

The governor, who also said he wanted to ban chokeholds, urged legislators to respond to the large crowds of Minnesotans who took to the streets in reaction to the killing of Mr. Floyd.

“Let’s show them that democracy works,” he said. “Let’s show them, in this moment, that what those people did going to the streets makes a difference. Let’s show them that by raising up their voices and asking for change, it can come about.”

Lt. Gov. Peggy Flanagan said that she had spoken earlier on Wednesday to Valerie Castile, the mother of Philando Castile, who was shot and killed by a police officer in a suburb of St. Paul in 2016, and that Ms. Castile had encouraged the state to make meaningful change following Mr. Floyd’s death.

“She said, ‘God gave you Philando, but Philando wasn’t enough, and now God has given you George Floyd,’” Ms. Flanagan said, recalling their conversation. “We cannot let this opportunity pass. It is too important.”

Also on Wednesday, the chief of the Minneapolis Police Department said he would no longer engage in contract negotiations with the city’s police union.

Chief Medaria Arradondo, an African-American who once sued the Police Department and the city for discrimination, said he would bring in outside advisers to examine how to revamp the police union contract to allow “more flexibility for true reform.” He said the review would cover issues like the role of supervisors and the discipline and arbitration process, a thorny subject raised by protesters in several states.

Activists say the police union in Minneapolis exerts more control than the chief does over police officers’ behavior. Lt. Bob Kroll, president of the Minneapolis Police Officers Federation, the union representing more than 800 officers, did not immediately return a call seeking comment.

Mayor Jacob Frey applauded the chief’s plans in a statement, saying the city needed not only a new police union contract but also “a new compact between the people of Minneapolis and the people trusted to protect and serve.”

Mayor Byron Brown of Buffalo on Wednesday removed a special squad of the city’s Police Department from crowd control duties a week after footage rocketed around the world of the unit’s violent encounter with a 75-year-old protester.

The squad, the Emergency Response Team, will be immediately replaced by a Public Protection Unit that the mayor said would “work with and ensure the safety of any group that wants to peacefully protest.” All 57 members of the Emergency Response Team had resigned after two of their colleagues were suspended for shoving the protester, who was hospitalized.

The announcement was part of a series of measures announced by Mr. Brown on Wednesday: The public will be given easier access to footage of police body camera footage; non-violent low-level offenses will no longer be subject to arrest; and fees and fines will be lowered so as not to be “an undue burden on struggling members of our community,” the mayor said.

Police officers will also undergo training for implicit bias.

“We will shift policing in Buffalo away from enforcement and to a restorative model that promotes stronger community bonds, civic engagement and an end to young black men, black people, being caught in a cycle of crime and incarceration,” the mayor said.

“There must no longer be fear in the black community that an encounter with police will involve discriminatory behavior, and even worse, a fatality.”

Louisville Metro Police Department officers dressed in riot gear stand on sixth street while clearing out demonstrators who were violating curfew on Monday.Credit…Luke Sharrett for The New York Times

Amazon said on Wednesday that it was putting a one-year pause on letting police departments use its facial recognition tool, Rekognition. The artificial intelligence software has been criticized for misidentifying African-Americans and other people of color.

In a two-paragraph blog post, the company said it hoped the moratorium “might give Congress enough time to put in place appropriate rules” for the ethical use of facial recognition. In the past, Amazon had said its tools were accurate but were improperly used by researchers.

Earlier this week, IBM said it would stop selling facial recognition products, and last year the leading maker of police body cameras banned the use of facial recognition on its products at the recommendation of its independent ethics board.

President Trump rejected the idea on Wednesday of changing the names of American military bases that bear the names of Confederate officers, propelling himself even further into the culture war dividing the United States.

“These Monumental and very Powerful Bases have become part of a Great American Heritage, and a history of Winning, Victory, and Freedom,” Mr. Trump wrote in a string of messages on Twitter.

Mr. Trump volunteered his view without being asked, after Gen. David H. Petraeus, the retired Army commander in Iraq and Afghanistan and former director of the C.I.A., wrote in The Atlantic that the 10 United States Army installations named for Confederates should be renamed. The list includes Fort Bragg in North Carolina, Fort Hood in Texas and Fort Benning in Georgia.

On Monday, a Pentagon official said that Defense Secretary Mark P. Esper and Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy were “open to a bipartisan discussion on the topic” of removing Confederate names from bases.

Mr. Trump, a native of New York, has aligned himself repeatedly with defenders of Confederate heritage, most notably during the Charlottesville, Va., rally in 2017 that attracted white supremacists and turned violent.

A number of Confederate memorials have recently been targeted for removal, including a statue commemorating Confederate soldiers in Alexandria, Va., just outside Washington, and a prominent statue of Robert E. Lee on Monument Avenue in Richmond, Va., that has been covered in graffiti by protesters.

Also on Wednesday, Speaker Nancy Pelosi called for the removal of 11 remaining Confederate statues on display in the Capitol, including statues of Lee and Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy. “These statues pay homage to hate, not heritage,” she tweeted.

NASCAR said on Wednesday that it would ban the Confederate battle flag from its events and properties, becoming the latest organization to reconsider the flag’s place at a time of national reckoning over racism and white supremacy following the death of George Floyd.

“The presence of the Confederate flag at NASCAR events runs contrary to our commitment to providing a welcoming and inclusive environment for all fans, our competitors and our industry,” the group said in a statement. “Bringing people together around a love for racing and the community that it creates is what makes our fans and sport special. The display of the Confederate flag will be prohibited from all NASCAR events and properties.”

The racing association made the announcement two days after Darrell Wallace Jr., the first black driver in 50 years to win one of its top three national touring series, called on NASCAR to ban the flags outright.

“No one should feel uncomfortable when they come to a NASCAR race,” Mr. Wallace, who is known as Bubba, told Don Lemon of CNN. “So it starts with Confederate flags. Get them out of here. They have no place for them.”

The association began asking fans to stop bringing Confederate battle flags to races in 2015, after photos circulated online of the white man who killed nine black churchgoers in Charleston, S.C., posing with the flag.

NASCAR announced on Tuesday that Mr. Wallace would compete in a car painted with Black Lives Matter imagery at Martinsville Speedway in Virginia on Wednesday.

Demonstrators marched in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on Friday.Credit…Victor J. Blue for The New York Times

American public opinion can sometimes seem stubborn. Voters haven’t really changed their views on abortion in 50 years. Donald J. Trump’s approval rating among registered voters has fallen within a five-point range for just about every day of his presidency.

But the Black Lives Matter movement is proving to be an exception.

Public opinion on race and criminal justice issues has been steadily moving left since the first protests ignited over the fatal shootings of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown. And since the death of George Floyd in police custody on May 25, public opinion on race, criminal justice and the Black Lives Matter movement has shifted leftward.

Over the last two weeks, support for Black Lives Matter increased by nearly as much as it had over the previous two years, according to data from Civiqs, an online survey research firm. By a 28-point margin, Civiqs finds that a majority of Americans support the movement, up from a 17-point margin before the most recent wave of protests began.

Weekly polling for the Democracy Fund’s U.C.L.A./Nationscape survey shows a significant increase in unfavorable views of the police, and an increase in the belief that African-Americans face a lot of discrimination.

Seven officers from the Los Angeles Police Department have been reassigned as part of an investigation into excessive force and other misconduct during protests and unrest in Los Angeles spurred by the killing of George Floyd, the department said on Wednesday.

Forty investigators have been assigned to look into 56 cases of possible misconduct, including 28 involving accusations of improper use of force, the department said.

In a statement, the department said it would “look into every complaint thoroughly and hold every officer accountable for their actions.”

Several lawmakers and officials have urged investigations, buttressed by videos showing an officer repeatedly shocking a woman on the ground with a stun gun, a police vehicle pushing into a crowd and officers swinging at protesters with batons.

The president of the Los Angeles Police Commission, Eileen Decker, a former federal prosecutor during the Obama administration, has called for a review of the use of force by officers.

Ms. Decker and the city’s police chief, Michel Moore, announced on Sunday an immediate moratorium on carotid restraint holds by police, which restrict blood flow to the brain by compressing the neck.

Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles said last week that he would look into cutting as much as $150 million from the Police Department’s budget.

Linda Tirado was struck in the left eye by a non-lethal projectile fired by an officer.Credit…Linda Tirado

A freelance photographer and author who was blinded in one eye by a law enforcement officer during a night of unrest in Minneapolis filed a federal lawsuit on Wednesday, accusing the city and state police of deliberately targeting the news media.

Linda Tirado, 37, was struck in the left eye by a non-lethal projectile fired by an officer on May 29, as she was covering demonstrations after the death of George Floyd. Ms. Tirado said officers ignored the press credential she wore around her neck and first hit her with a green tracking round, leaving a mark on her backpack.

“Then, with a bright green target on her, the police shot her in her face,” her lawyers wrote.

U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, a joint effort of several journalism organizations, has collected well over 200 reports from around the country of journalists being arrested, shot with non-lethal rounds, hit or pepper-sprayed by law enforcement officers while covering the protests of the past two weeks. It says it is looking into more than 90 incidents in Minnesota alone.

The Minneapolis Police Department uses 40 mm “less-lethal” foam rounds, and Ms. Tirado said doctors had removed foam particles from her eye.

Ms. Tirado, a mother of two who lives in Tennessee and does not have health insurance, has had two operations. She said she had lost her sense of depth perception and did not expect to be able to work as a photographer.

“I’m not sure I am ever going to feel comfortable in a protest situation where I might have to run,” she said in an interview.

Asked if she was deliberately targeted, she said: “I think the totality of evidence is that there certainly was animus toward the press.”

A lawyer for Ms. Tirado, Tai-Heng Cheng, said that if she won a settlement or judgment, after paying her medical bills she would donate the money to a charity dedicated to police reform.

A Minneapolis Police spokesman said his agency did not fire at Ms. Tirado.

“Our department was not a part of that incident,” John A. Elder, a spokesman, said. “Several agencies have been involved in addressing the riots.”

Five days later, after Ms. Tirado’s photos of the police surfaced, Mr. Elder revised his statement, acknowledging that if Ms. Tirado was hit by foam bullets — as opposed to rubber bullets — the Minneapolis Police could have been responsible.

Bruce Gordon, a spokesman for the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, said “we are reviewing the incidents involving our troopers,” but would not say whether a state officer had fired at Ms. Tirado.

He added that it “can be difficult for officers to distinguish journalists from those who are violating a curfew order or not complying with commands to leave an area.”

A video showing sheriff’s deputies delivering repeated electric shocks to a black man just before he died, even as he told them he had heart disease and could not breathe, has triggered calls for the sheriff of a Central Texas county to resign, amid nationwide protests against bias and excessive force in policing.

The incident occurred last year, but the video, with parallels to the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis that has ignited two weeks of demonstrations, was made public on Monday, a day before Mr. Floyd was laid to rest after an emotional service in Houston. The video was published by The Austin American-Statesman and an Austin TV station, KVUE.

The death of the man, Javier Ambler, after a car chase drew little attention at the time, but after the release of the video, taken from a police officer’s body camera, three of four Williamson County Commissioners have demanded the resignation of Sheriff Robert Chody. The Sheriff’s Department concluded that the deputies did nothing wrong.

The case is also under investigation in Travis County, where the car chase ended, and is expected to be presented to a grand jury.

“Yet another black man aggressively arrested and resulting in death,” one of the Williamson County commissioners, Terry Cook, said in a telephone interview on Wednesday.

The deputies tried to pull over Mr. Ambler over for failing to dim his headlights, but he led them on a 22-minute chase. The events were filmed by crew members from A&E’s reality show “Live PD” who were riding with the deputies, Austin outlets reported.

After Mr. Ambler, 40, finally stopped, deputies attempted to put him facedown on the ground and cuff his hands behind his back. In the video, he appears to resist, telling them that he has congestive heart failure and — like Mr. Floyd — that he cannot breathe. At one point Mr. Ambler said “save me.”

After the deputies restrained him, Mr. Ambler became unresponsive and they tried unsuccessfully to revive him. An autopsy concluded that he died of heart disease in combination with the deputies restraining him.

Representatives of “Live PD” told The American-Statesman on Tuesday that no law enforcement agency had asked for its footage of the death, which was never broadcast. They said that after the Sheriff’s Department concluded its internal investigation, it had destroyed that video as a matter of routine.

Reporting was contributed by Jason M. Bailey, Mike Baker, Kim Barker, Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, Nate Cohn, Johnny Diaz, Catie Edmonson, Nicholas Fandos, Thomas Fuller, Emma Grillo, Lara Jakes, Erin McCann, Patricia Mazzei, Sarah Mervosh, David Montgomery, Dennis Overbye, Richard Pérez-Peña, Kevin Quealy, Frances Robles, Nate Schweber, Ed Shanahan, Natasha Singer, Nicole Sperling, Tracey Tully, Daniel Victor and Karen Weise.


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America’s Reckoning on Racism Spreads Beyond Policing

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নূরুর বিরুদ্ধে ধর্ষণ মামলার প্রতিবাদে চলছে বিক্ষোভ মিছিল । VP NOOR

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নূরুর বিরুদ্ধে ধর্ষণ মামলার প্রতিবাদে চলছে বিক্ষোভ মিছিল । VP NOOR

Jamuna TV

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কারওয়ান বাজারে অবরোধ তুলে নিয়েছেন সৌদি প্রবাসীরা | Jamuna TV

রাজধানীর কারওয়ান বাজারে সৌদি এয়ালাইন্সের টিকিটের দাবিতে বিক্ষোভ করা সৌদি প্রবাসীরা সড়ক ছেড়ে দিয়েছেন। এতে স্বাভাবিক হচ্ছে যান চলাচল। পুলিশী হস্তক্ষেপে তারা সড়ক ছাড়েন। Enjoy and stay connected with us: Subscribe to Jamuna Television on YouTube https://Youtube.com/jamunatvbd Like Jamuna Television on Facebook https://fb.com/JamunaTelevision Follow Jamuna Television on Twitter https://twitter.com/JamunaTV For More update visit https://www.jamuna.tv #JamunaTV #Jamuna_Television #Jamuna_News


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কারওয়ান বাজারে অবরোধ তুলে নিয়েছেন সৌদি প্রবাসীরা | Jamuna TV

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নূরুর বিরুদ্ধে এবার অপহরণ, ধর্ষণ ও ডিজিটাল নিরাপত্তা আইনে মামলা । VP NOOR

ডাকসুর সাবেক ভিপি নুরুল হক নূরের বিরুদ্ধে এবার অপহরণ, ধর্ষণ ও ডিজিটাল নিরাপত্তা আইনে মামলা হয়েছে। Enjoy and stay connected with us: Subscribe to Jamuna Television on YouTube https://Youtube.com/jamunatvbd Like Jamuna Television on Facebook https://fb.com/JamunaTelevision Follow Jamuna Television on Twitter https://twitter.com/JamunaTV For More update visit https://www.jamuna.tv #JamunaTV #Jamuna_Television #Jamuna_News


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নূরুর বিরুদ্ধে এবার অপহরণ, ধর্ষণ ও ডিজিটাল নিরাপত্তা আইনে মামলা । VP NOOR

Jamuna TV

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বৃষ্টি বা জোয়ারেই জমে পানি, ভোগান্তিতে নগরবাসী ।

নদীতে অতিরিক্ত জোয়ার বা ঘণ্টাখানেকের টানা বৃষ্টি; এতেই তলিয়ে যায় বরিশাল নগরীর বিভিন্ন এলাকা। পানি নামতে না পেরে সৃষ্টি হয় জলাবদ্ধতা। ভোগান্তি বাড়ে নগরবাসীর। জলাবদ্ধতার কারণ হিসেবে খাল-পুকুর দখল ও ভরাট এবং সিটি কর্পোরেশনের অপরিকল্পিত উন্নয়নকে দায়ি করছেন বিশ্লেষকরা। Enjoy and stay connected with us: Subscribe to Jamuna Television on YouTube https://Youtube.com/jamunatvbd Like Jamuna Television on Facebook https://fb.com/JamunaTelevision Follow Jamuna Television on Twitter https://twitter.com/JamunaTV For More update visit https://www.jamuna.tv #JamunaTV #Jamuna_Television #Jamuna_News


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বৃষ্টি বা জোয়ারেই জমে পানি, ভোগান্তিতে নগরবাসী ।

Jamuna TV

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ধীরে ধীরে বাড়ছে বিদেশি বিনিয়োগ লেনদেন । Foreign Investment

মাসখানেক ধরেই সুবাতাস বইছে পুঁজিবাজারে। বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকও সহজ করে দিয়েছে বিদেশী বিনিয়োগের সুযোগ সুবিধা। এতে ধীরে ধীরে বাড়ছে বিদেশি বিনিয়োগকারীদের লেনদেন। শক্তিশালী বাজার গড়ে তুলতে বিদেশি বিনিয়োগ বাড়ানোর প্রতি জোর দিয়েছে বিএসইসি। সুষ্ঠু বাজার পেলে আরো বিনিয়োগকারী বাড়বে বলে মনে করছেন বিশ্লেষকরা। Enjoy and stay connected with us: Subscribe to Jamuna Television on YouTube https://Youtube.com/jamunatvbd Like Jamuna Television on Facebook https://fb.com/JamunaTelevision Follow Jamuna Television on Twitter https://twitter.com/JamunaTV For More update visit https://www.jamuna.tv #JamunaTV #Jamuna_Television #Jamuna_News


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ধীরে ধীরে বাড়ছে বিদেশি বিনিয়োগ লেনদেন । Foreign Investment

Jamuna TV

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পাশের বাড়িতে পানি আনতে গিয়ে ধর্ষিত হলো স্কুলছাত্রী | Manikganj Rape

মানিকগঞ্জের ঘিওরে অষ্টম শ্রেণির এক ছাত্রীকে ধর্ষণের ঘটনায় মামলা হয়েছে। Enjoy and stay connected with us: Subscribe to Jamuna Television on YouTube https://Youtube.com/jamunatvbd Like Jamuna Television on Facebook https://fb.com/JamunaTelevision Follow Jamuna Television on Twitter https://twitter.com/JamunaTV For More update visit https://www.jamuna.tv #JamunaTV #Jamuna_Television #Jamuna_News


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পাশের বাড়িতে পানি আনতে গিয়ে ধর্ষিত হলো স্কুলছাত্রী | Manikganj Rape

Jamuna TV

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